Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. (M. B. Ramos, trans.). New York: Continuum.
Grabe S. An empirical examination of women’s empowerment and transformative change in the context of international development. Am J Community Psychol. 2011;49:233–45.
Kabeer N. Resources, agency, achievements: reflections on the measurement of women’s empowerment. Dev Change. 1999;30(43):435–64.
Mosedale S. Assessing women’s empowerment: towards a conceptual framework. J Int Dev. 2005;17:243–57.
Lips H. The gender pay gap: Challenging the rationalizations. Perceived equity, discrimination, and the limits of human capital models. Feminist Forum, 2013;68:169–185. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-012-0165-z
Marmot M, Allen J, Bell R, Bloomer E, Goldblatt P. WHO European review of social determinants of health and the health divide. The Lancet. 2012;380(9846):1011–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61228-8.
Raphael D. (2012). Tackling Health Inequalities: Lessons from International Experiences. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press; 2012.
Statistics Canada. Economic well-being. 2015a. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-503-x/2010001/article/11388-eng.htm#a4
Mikkonen J, Raphael D. Social determinants of health: Canadian facts. 2010. http://www.nsgamingfoundation.org/articlesReports/Report_Social_Determinants _of_Health_The_Canadian_Facts.pdf
Public Health Agency of Canada. What determines health? In: Population Health. http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ph-sp/determinants/index-eng.php
United Nations. Sustainable Development Goals Report. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/21252030%20Agenda%20for%20Sustainable%20Development%20web.pdf
Dixon LJ, Coorea T, Straubhaar J, Covarrubias L, Graber D, Spence J, Rojas V. Gendered spaces: the digital divide between male and female users in internet public access sites. J Comput Med Commun. 2014;19(4):991–1009.
Fang ML, Canham SL, Battersby L, Sixsmith J, Wada M, Sixsmith A. Exploring privilege in the digital divide: Implications for theory, policy, and practice. The Gerontologist. 2018;59(1):e1–15. https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gny037.
Pagán FJB, Martínez JL, Máiquez MCC. Internet use by secondary school students: a digital divide in sustainable societies? Sustainability. 2018;10(10):1–14. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103703.
Brimacombe T, Skuse A. Gender, ICTs, and indicators: Measuring inequality and change. Gender Technol Dev. 2013;17(2):131–57.
Gurumurthy, A. (2004). Gender and ICTs: Overview report. Retrieved from http://www.bridge.ids.ac.uk/sites/bridge.ids.ac.uk/files/reports/CEP-ICTs-OR.pdf
Intel. (2013). Women and web. Retrieved from http://www.intel.com/content/dam/www/public/us/ en/documents/pdf/women-and-the-web.pdf
Hilbert M. Digital gender divide or technologically empowered women in developing countries? A typical case of lies, damned lies, and statistics. Women’s Stud Int Forum. 2011;34(6):479–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wsif.2011.07.001.
International Telecommunication Union. ICT facts and figures: 2017. 2017. https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/pages/facts/default.aspx
Ono H, Zavodny M. Gender and the internet. Soc Sci Quart. 2009;84(1):111–21.
Wasserman IM, Richmond-Abbott MR. Gender and the internet: Causes of variation in access, level, and scope of use. Soc Sci Quart. 2005;86(1):252–70.
Gill, K., Brooks, K., McDougall, J., Patel, P., & Kes, A. (2010). Bridging the gender divide: How technology can advance women economically. Retrieved from http://www.icrw.org/files/publications/Bridging-the-Gender-Divide-How-Technology-can-Advance-Women-Economically.pdf
Gurumurthy, A. (2006). Promoting gender equality? Some development-related uses of ICTs by women. Development in Practice, 16(6).
Weiss M, Tarchinskaya E. The role of information technologies in changing the status of women to improve human conditions. In: Brocke JV, Stein A, Hofmann S, Tumbas S, editors. Grand societal challenges in information systems research and education. New York: Springer; 2015. p. 51–60.
Armstrong R, Hall BJ, Doyle J, Waters E. Scoping the scope of a Cochrane review. J Public Health. 2011;33(1):147–50.
The Joanna Briggs Institute. Methodology for JBI scoping reviews. 2015. http://joannabriggs.org/assets/docs/sumari/Reviewers-Manual_Methodology-for-JBI-Scoping-Reviews_2015_v2.pdf
Arksey H, O’Malley L. Scoping studies: towards a methodological framework. Int J Soc Res Methodol. 2005;8(1):19–32. https://doi.org/10.1080/1364557032000119616.
Grimshaw J. A guide to knowledge synthesis. Canadian Institutes of Health Research. 2010. http://www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/41382.html
Landa AH, Szabo I, Le Brun L, Owen I, Fletcher G, & Hill M. An evidence-based approach to scoping reviews. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation. 2011;10:4: 173–175. http://martinhill.me.uk/pubs/EvidenceBasedApproachToLitReview.pdf
Levac D, Colquhoun H, O’Brien KK. Scoping studies: Advancing the methodology. Implementation Science. 2010;5:1:1–9.
Chew HE, Ilavarasan VP, Levy MR. Mattering matters: agency, empowerment, and mobile phone use by female microentrepreneurs. Inf Technol Dev. 2015;21(4):523–42.
Handapangoda WS, & Sisira Kumara A. From silence to voice: Examining the empowerment potential of mobile phones to women in Sri Lanka: The case of dependent housewives. 2012. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/41768/
Lindsay M, Messing JT, Thaller J, Baldwin A, Clough A, Bloom T, … & Glass N. Survivor feedback on a safety decision aid smartphone application for college-age women in abusive relationships. Journal of Technology in Human Services. 2013;31:4:368–388.
Vivakaran MV, Maraimalai N. Feminist pedagogy and social media: a study on their integration and effectiveness in training budding women entrepreneurs. Gend Educ. 2017;29(7):869–89.
Admiraal JM, van der Velden AW, Geerling J, Burgerhof JG, Bouma G, Walenkamp AM, … & Reyners AK. Web-based tailored psychoeducation for breast cancer patients at the onset of the survivorship phase: A multicenter randomized controlled trial. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 2017;54:4:466–75.
Nord JH, Riggio MT, Paliszkiewicz J. Social and economic development through information and communications technologies: Italy. J Comput Inf Syst. 2017;57(3):278–85.
Sarkar S. Beyond the “digital divide”: the “computer girls” of Seelampur. Feminist Media Stud. 2016;16(6):968–83.
Siekkinen M, Kesänen J, Vahlberg T, Pyrhönen S, Leino-Kilpi H. Randomized, controlled trial of the effect of e-feedback on knowledge about radiotherapy of breast cancer patients in Finland. Nursing Health Sci. 2015;17(1):97–104.
Holbrey S, Coulson NS. A qualitative investigation of the impact of peer to peer online support for women living with polycystic ovary syndrome. BMC Women’s Health. 2013;13(1):51.
Islam MK, & Slack F. Women in rural Bangladesh: Empowered by access to mobile phones. In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance. 2016;March:75–84.
Choo E, Guthrie KM, Mello M, Wetle TF, Ranney M, Tapé C, Zlotnick C. “I need to hear from women who have ‘been there’”: Developing a woman-focused intervention for drug use and partner violence in the emergency department. Partner Abuse. 2016;7(2):193.
Mehta BS, Mehta N. ICT and Socio-economic empowerment of rural women: case of mobile phone in India. Knowl Horizons-Econ. 2014;6(4):103–12.
Brown S, Hudson DB, Campbell-Grossman C, & Yates BC. Health promotion text blasts for minority adolescent mothers. MCN: The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 2014;39:6:357–362.
Gold KJ, Normandin MM, Boggs ME. Are participants in face-to-face and internet support groups the same? Comparison of demographics and depression levels among women bereaved by stillbirth. Arch Women’s Mental Health. 2016;19(6):1073–8.
Hearn L, Miller M, Lester L. Reaching perinatal women online: The healthy you, healthy baby website and app. J Obesity. 2014;2014:1–9.
Kim DR, Hantsoo L, Thase ME, Sammel M, Epperson CN. Computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy for pregnant women with major depressive disorder. J Women’s Health. 2014;23(10):842–8.
Åhman A, Sarkadi A, Lindgren P, Rubertsson C. “It made you think twice”–an interview study of women’s perception of a web-based decision aid concerning screening and diagnostic testing for fetal anomalies. BMC Pregn Childbirth. 2016;16(1):267.
Chib A, Malik S, Aricat RG, Kadir SZ. Migrant mothering and mobile phones: Negotiations of transnational identity. Mobile Media Commun. 2014;2(1):73–93.
Vogel RI, Petzel SV, Cragg J, McClellan M, Chan D, Dickson E, Geller MA. Development and pilot of an advance care planning website for women with ovarian cancer: a randomized controlled trial. Gynecol Oncol. 2013;131(2):430–6.
Ayiasi RM, Kolsteren P, Batwala V, Criel B, & Orach CG. Effect of village health team home visits and mobile phone consultations on maternal and newborn care practices in Masindi and Kiryandongo, Uganda: A community-intervention trial. PloS One.
Jonas SM, Deserno TM, Buhimschi CS, Makin J, Choma MA, Buhimschi IA. Smartphone-based diagnostic for preeclampsia: a mHealth solution for administering the Congo Red Dot (CRD) test in settings with limited resources. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2015;23(1):166–73.
Wollersheim D, Koh L, Walker R, Liamputtong P. Constant connections: piloting a mobile phone-based peer support program for Nuer (southern Sudanese) women. Aust J Primary Health. 2013;19(1):7–13.
Atlas SJ, Ashburner JM, Chang Y, Lester WT, Barry M, Grant RW. Population-based breast cancer screening in a primary care network. Am J Managed Care. 2012;18(12):821.
Ball K, Mouchacca J, Jackson M. The feasibility and appeal of mobile ‘apps’ for supporting healthy food purchasing and consumption among socioeconomically disadvantaged women: a pilot study. Health Promotion J Aust. 2014;25(2):79–82.
Choi J, hyeon Lee J, Vittinghoff E, & Fukuoka Y. mHealth physical activity intervention: A randomized pilot study in physically inactive pregnant women. Maternal and Child Health Journal. 2016;20:5:1091–1101.
Fjeldsoe BS, Miller YD, Marshall AL. Social cognitive mediators of the effect of the MobileMums intervention on physical activity. Health Psychol. 2013;32(7):729.
Akinfaderin-Agarau F, Chirtau M, Ekponimo S, Power S. Opportunities and limitations for using new media and mobile phones to expand access to sexual and reproductive health information and services for adolescent girls and young women in six Nigerian states. Afr J Reprod Health. 2012;16(2):219–30.
Atkinson KM, Westeinde J, Ducharme R, Wilson SE, Deeks SL, Crowcroft N, Wilson K. Can mobile technologies improve on-time vaccination? A study piloting maternal use of ImmunizeCA, a Pan-Canadian immunization app. Human Vac Immunotherap. 2016;12(10):2654–61.
Brinkel J, May J, Krumkamp R, Lamshöft M, Kreuels B, Owusu-Dabo E, … & Fobil JN. Mobile phone-based interactive voice response as a tool for improving access to healthcare in remote areas in Ghana: an evaluation of user experiences. Trop Med Int Health 2017;22:5:622–630.
Fiander A, Ndahani C, Mmuya K, Vanneste T. Results from 2011 for the transportMYpatient program for overcoming transport costs among women seeking treatment for obstetric fistula in Tanzania. Int J Gynecol Obstetr. 2013;120(3):292–5.
Kukafka R, Yi H, Xiao T, Thomas P, Aguirre A, Smalletz C, … & Crew K. Why breast cancer risk by the numbers is not enough: Evaluation of a decision aid in multi-ethnic, low-numerate women. J Med Internet Res. 2015;17:7.
Potnis D. Culture’s consequences: Economic barriers to owning mobile phones experienced by women in India. Telematics Inform. 2016;33(2):356–69.
Sjöström M, Umefjord G, Stenlund H, Carlbring P, Andersson G, Samuelsson E. Internet-based treatment of stress urinary incontinence: a randomised controlled study with focus on pelvic floor muscle training. BJU Int. 2013;112(3):362–72.
Song FW, West JE, Lundy L, Smith DN. Women, pregnancy and health information online: the making of informed patients and ideal mothers. Gender Soc. 2012;26(5):773–98.
Wen KY, Miller SM, Kilby L, Fleisher L, Belton TD, Roy G, Hernandez E. Preventing postpartum smoking relapse among inner city women: development of a theory-based and evidence-guided text messaging intervention. JMIR Res Protocols. 2014;3:2.
Frizzo-Barker J, Chow-White PA. “There’s an App for That” Mediating mobile moms and connected careerists through smartphones and networked individualism. Feminist Media Stud. 2012;12(4):580–9.
Kim C, Draska M, Hess ML, Wilson EJ, Richardson CR. A web-based pedometer programme in women with a recent history of gestational diabetes. Diabet Med. 2012;29(2):278–83.
Parajuli R, Doneys P. Exploring the role of telemedicine in improving access to healthcare services by women and girls in rural Nepal. Telematics Inform. 2017;34(7):1166–76.
Bissonnette-Maheux V, Provencher V, Lapointe A, Dugrenier M, Dumas AA, Pluye P, Desroches S. Exploring women’s beliefs and perceptions about healthy eating blogs: a qualitative study. J Med Internet Res. 2015;17:4.
Tyers AA Gender Digital Divide? Women learning english through ICTs in Bangladesh. In mLearn. 2012;94–100.
Albright CL, Steffen AD, Novotny R, Nigg CR, Wilkens LR, Saiki K, Brown WJ. Baseline results from Hawaii’s Nā Mikimiki project: a physical activity intervention tailored to multiethnic postpartum women. Women Health. 2012;52(3):265–91.
Gilbert L, Shaw SA, Goddard-Eckrich D, Chang M, Rowe J, McCrimmon T, Epperson M. Project WINGS (Women Initiating New Goals of Safety): A randomised controlled trial of a screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT) service to identify and address intimate partner violence victimisation among substance-using women receiving community supervision. Criminal Behav Mental Health. 2015;25(4):314–29.
Min YH, Lee JW, Shin YW, Jo MW, Sohn G, Lee JH, … & Yu JH. Daily collection of self-reporting sleep disturbance data via a smartphone app in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A feasibility study. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2014;16:5:e135.
Sriramatr S, Berry TR, Spence JC. An Internet-based intervention for promoting and maintaining physical activity: A randomized controlled trial. Am J Health Behav. 2014;38(3):430–9.
Steffen AM, Gant JR. A telehealth behavioral coaching intervention for neurocognitive disorder family carers. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2016;31(2):195–203.
Takeuchi S, Horiuchi S. Randomised controlled trial using smartphone website vs leaflet to support antenatal perineal massage practice for pregnant women. Women and Birth. 2016;29(5):430–5.
Weinert C, Cudney S, Comstock B, Bansal A. Computer intervention: Illness self-management/quality of life of rural women. Can J Nurs Res. 2014;46(1):26–43.
Ventura F, Sawatzky R, Öhlén J, Karlsson P, Koinberg I. Challenges of evaluating a computer-based educational programme for women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer: a randomised controlled trial. Eur J Cancer Care. 2017;26:5.
Martinez-Brockman JL, Shebl FM, Harari N, Perez-Escamilla R. An assessment of the social cognitive predictors of exclusive breastfeeding behavior using the Health Action Process Approach. Soc Sci Med. 2017;182:106–16.
Kim HK, Niederdeppe J, Graham M, Olson C, Gay G. Effects of online self-regulation activities on physical activity among pregnant and early postpartum women. J Health Commun. 2015;20:101115–24.
Ehlers DK, Huberty JL, de Vreede GJ. Can an evidence-based book club intervention delivered via a tablet computer improve physical activity in middle-aged women? Telemed e-Health. 2015;21(2):125–31.
Dimond JP, Fiesler C, Bruckman AS. Domestic violence and information communication technologies. Interact Comput. 2011;23(5):413–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intcom.2011.04.006.
Henry N, Powell A. Technology-facilitated sexual violence: a literature review of empirical research. Trauma Violence Abuse. 2018;19(2):195–208. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838016650189.
United Nations Statistics Division. Gender data: Sources, gaps, and measurement opportunities. 2017. http://www.data4sdgs.org/sites/default/files/2017-09/Gender%20Data%20-%20Data4SDGs%20Toolbox%20Module.pdf